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Troika is a team of three web website programming languages that have become standard for creating web pages, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. They are interpreted by web browsers to rendering website pages.

The job of a website development frameworks is to compile the troika and non troika programming languages, such as MDX and JSX, into a combination the standard troika languages to be executed in web browsers.

Hypertext Markup Language


HTML is used to create websites. It is the standard markup language for browser website pages. It defines the content and structure of website pages. HTML can be assisted by Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to instruct browsers how elements are to be styled and rendered, and JavaScript is for user interactivity.


Not to be confused with the Java programming language.


JavaScript Used to make webpages interactive. It is the programming language of the web. It is the most popular website programming language choice for the million of programmers globally. It is a high-level language, flexible and expressive enough to write website applications. It has many advantages. It is dynamically typed, requires no compile step, and has a huge ecosystem that provides powerful frameworks, libraries, and other tools. JavaScript is one of the core technologies of website Troika website programming. It enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications. All contemporary web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript virtual machine built-inn to execute it.



CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in HTML

CSS instructs browsers how elements are to be styled and rendered.

Other Languages


Other languages besides the Troika are frequently needed to create and deploy websites

Some are:

Editor commands

Website Material

Command-line interface

Operating system (OS) command-line interfaces are usually distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is often called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell.

Version Control System

Static Static Site Generator commands

Deploy commands