Web Programming Languages


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Hypertext Markup Language

HTML 1 is the standard markup language for Web pages. It defines the content and structure of web pages. HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets 2 (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript.


JavaScript 3 is a high-level language, flexible and expressive enough to write web applications. It has many advantages — it is dynamically typed, requires no compile step, and has a huge ecosystem that provides powerful frameworks, libraries, and other tools. JavaScript is one of the core technologies of web site programming. It enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications. All contemporary web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript virtual machine built in to execute it.


John Gruber published the original Markdown Syntax Guide 4. Different flavors of Markdown have evolved since then.

Markdown is a better way to write HTML. It is compiled into HTML at deploy time. Markdown is a lightweight plaintext markup language used to add formatting elements to documents. Markdown is now one of the world’s most popular markup languages. Using Markdown is different than using a WYSIWYG editor. In an application like Microsoft Word, you click buttons to format words and phrases, and the changes are visible immediately. Markdown isn’t like that. When you create a Markdown-formatted file. Markdown syntax is added to the text to indicate which words and phrases look different.

Markdown has been characterized by an informal specification and a reference implementation for conversion to HTML. Over time, many Markdown implementations have appeared. People developed these mostly driven by the need for additional features such as tables, footnotes, definition lists, and HTML inside Markdown blocks. The behavior of some of these additional features diverge from the reference implementation and informal specification, and have attracted attention


CommonMark 5 propose a standard, unambiguous syntax specification for Markdown, along with a suite of comprehensive tests to validate Markdown implementations against the specification for the future of Markdown. Check out the CommonMark Spec 6

GitHub Flavored Markdown (GFM)

GFM 7 is a strict superset of CommonMark, following its specification exactly except for tables, strikethrough, autolinks and task lists


reStructuredText 8 is a lightweight markup language that is used in static site generators like Sphinx 9. Sphinx requires using Markdown or reStructuredText for text material editing. This web site is an example of using reStructuredText and Spninx.

Sphinx contains robust tools for semantic markup, reusing content, and content filters for different kinds of outputs.

Compared to some other lightweight markup languages like MarkDown, reStructuredText contains stronger semantic markup tools. Some writers also prefer reStructuredText because the markup standards are more well-defined compared to MarkDown

reStructuredText is an easy-to-read, plaintext markup syntax and parser system. It is useful for quickly creating simple web pages, and for standalone documents

Structured Text” is probably a bit of a misnomer. It’s more like “Relaxed Text” that uses certain consistent patterns. These patterns are interpreted by a HTML converter to produce “Very Structured Text” that can be used by a web browser

reStructuredText is the default plaintext markup language for Sphinx

Sphinx uses reStructuredText as its markup language, and many of its strengths come from the power and straightforwardness of reStructuredText and its parsing and translating suite, the Docutils 10



HTML: https://www.w3schools.com/html/default.asp


Cascading Style Sheets: https://www.w3schools.com/css/default.asp


JavaScript: https://www.w3schools.com/js/default.asp


Markdown Syntax Guide: https://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax


GFM: https://github.github.com/gfm/


reStructuredText: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ReStructuredText


Sphinx : https://www.sphinx-doc.org/en/master/index.html


CommonMark: https://commonmark.org


CommonMark Spec: https://spec.commonmark.org


Docutils: http://docutils.sourceforge.net

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